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Opiate Addiction: Symptoms, Causes, Effects And Statistics

Opiates are a class of drugs that include natural substances like morphine and synthetic opioids such as oxycodone. Understanding the signs, symptoms, and statistics of opiate addiction is crucial to be able to effectively treat it. Opiate addiction can lead to physical dependence, tolerance, overdose, and a range of negative health, social, and economic consequences. Recognizing signs like constricted pupils, drowsiness, and behavioral changes can facilitate early intervention and treatment.

What is An Opiate?

Opiates are a class of drugs that are naturally derived from the opium poppy plant (Papaver somniferum). They include substances such as morphine and codeine. Opiates act as central nervous system depressants and are known for their pain-relieving and sedative effects. 

Chemically, opiates contain specific alkaloids that interact with opioid receptors in the brain and body, leading to pain relief, relaxation, and a sense of euphoria. These compounds have been used for centuries for their analgesic properties, but they also carry a high risk of dependence, tolerance, and addiction when misused or abused. 

It’s worth noting that the term “opioid” is often used interchangeably with “opiate,” but opioids encompass a broader range of substances that include both natural opiates and synthetic compounds that act similarly on opioid receptors.

Methods of consumption have included:

  • Oral Consumption: Opium poppy plant material was ingested orally, either in its natural state or in various preparations like teas and tinctures.
  • Inhalation: Opium could be smoked, a practice particularly prevalent in certain cultures. Smoking opium was believed to provide rapid pain relief and relaxation.
  • Injection: With the advent of syringes, injectable forms of opiates like morphine and heroin became popular. Intravenous injection provided an intense and immediate euphoric effect.
  • Rectal Administration: Suppositories and enemas containing opium were used for medical purposes, especially when patients were unable to take oral medications.
  • Transdermal Patches: In modern times, opioid patches have been developed to deliver controlled doses of opiates through the skin, offering sustained pain relief for extended periods.
  • Synthetic Opioids: Alongside natural opiates, synthetic opioids like fentanyl and oxycodone have been developed for medical use, but they have also contributed to the current opioid crisis due to their potency and potential for abuse.

Throughout history, the allure of opiate-based substances for pain relief and euphoria has been balanced by the risks of dependence, addiction, and adverse effects. The evolving forms and methods of consumption reflect both the medical advancements and the challenges associated with managing these powerful substances.

How Common is Opiates Addiction?

Global statistics on opiates paint a grim picture of the widespread issue. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), an estimated 53 million people worldwide used opioids in 2019, with over two-thirds of global opiate users residing in Asia. 

The opioid crisis in North America remains a significant concern, with the United States alone grappling with millions of individuals affected by opioid use disorders. These statistics underscore the urgent need for comprehensive strategies to address opiate addiction on a global scale.

  • Opioid-related Deaths: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that around 69,000 people die each year from opioid overdose globally.
  • Fentanyl Impact: Fentanyl and its analogs, highly potent synthetic opioids, have contributed to a surge in overdose deaths. In the United States, for instance, synthetic opioids were involved in over 60% of opioid-related overdose deaths in recent years according to the comonwealth fund.
  • Treatment Gap: The treatment gap for opioid use disorders is significant. According to the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), only about one in five people with opioid dependence worldwide receives treatment.
  • HIV and Hepatitis C: Injection drug use, often associated with opioid use, remains a key driver of HIV and Hepatitis C transmission globally. Unsafe injection practices contribute to the spread of these infections, particularly in regions with limited harm reduction services based on the World Health Organization injection safety Q & A.
  • War-affected Regions: Conflict-affected regions, such as parts of Afghanistan and Myanmar, are also major opiate-producing areas. These areas face complex challenges related to opium cultivation, trafficking, and addiction amidst ongoing instability.
  • Children and Women: Opiate addiction affects not only adults but also vulnerable populations such as children and women. Some regions report high numbers of pregnant women who are opioid-dependent, leading to concerns about neonatal abstinence syndrome based on the CDC report.
  • Global Seizures: The UNODC reported seizing over 185 tons of heroin in 2019, revealing the extent of the international trafficking networks associated with opiates.
  • Economic Burden: The economic burden of opioid misuse is substantial, encompassing healthcare costs, lost productivity, and increased criminal justice expenses. This burden affects not only individuals and families but also entire societies.

These statistics highlight the multifaceted nature of the global opiate addiction crisis, touching on health, social, economic, and legal dimensions. 

United States Opioid Statistics

In the United States, opiate addiction has taken on alarming proportions, with significant impacts on various demographic groups. Here are some national statistics related to opiate use and the demographics most affected:

  • Opioid Overdose Deaths: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were over 100,000 drug overdose deaths in the US in the 12-month period ending in September 2020, with opioids involved in the majority of these deaths.
  • Prescription Opioid Misuse: Over 9 million people in the US reported using prescription opioids for non-medical purposes in 2019, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH).
  • Heroin Use: NSDUH reported that about 745,000 people aged 12 or older used heroin in 2019. The demographic most affected by heroin use tends to be young adults aged 18 to 25.
  • Fentanyl Impact: Fentanyl-related deaths have surged in recent years. The CDC reported that over 36,000 overdose deaths involving synthetic opioids (mostly fentanyl) occurred in the US in the 12-month period ending in September 2020.
  • Geographic Variations: Opioid addiction affects various regions differently. Appalachian states, New England, and parts of the Midwest have experienced particularly high rates of opioid overdose deaths.
  • Racial Disparities: Opioid addiction has disproportionately affected certain racial and ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic White individuals have historically experienced higher rates of opioid overdose deaths, but overdose rates among Black individuals have been rising rapidly.
  • Gender Differences: Opioid addiction affects both men and women, but women have been experiencing a sharper increase in opioid overdose deaths. In recent years, there has been a significant rise in opioid-related deaths among women of all ages.
  • Age Groups: While opioid addiction spans various age groups, young adults and middle-aged individuals have been particularly affected. According To A Recent Study, the age group of 25 to 44 has consistently experienced the highest rates of opioid overdose deaths. (Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can.)
  • Rural vs. Urban: Rural areas have faced substantial challenges in combating opioid addiction, often experiencing limited access to healthcare, treatment facilities, and harm reduction services.
  • Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS): Opioid use during pregnancy has led to an increase in cases of NAS, where newborns experience withdrawal symptoms. In 2019, about 7 cases of NAS were reported per 1,000 hospital births.

Opiate User Rehab Admission Rates

Understanding the demographic trends in admission rates for opiate addiction treatment is crucial for tailoring effective interventions and allocating resources to address the specific needs of different groups.

  • Admission Rates by Gender: Admission rates for opiate addiction treatment vary by gender, with both males and females seeking help for their addiction. Historically, males have often accounted for higher admission rates due to factors such as higher rates of substance use in general and different social pressures.
  • In recent years, there has been a notable increase in admission rates among females, reflecting changing patterns of drug use and an increased awareness of addiction as a public health issue affecting all genders.
  • Admission Rates by Age Group: Admission rates for opiate addiction treatment also exhibit variations across different age groups. Young adults, typically between the ages of 18 and 25, often show high rates of admission due to their susceptibility to experimenting with drugs and developing substance use disorders.
  • Middle-aged individuals, typically between the ages of 26 and 40, also constitute a significant portion of admissions, often due to a combination of chronic pain management and recreational use. Older adults may seek treatment for opiate addiction, often as a result of long-term use for pain management.
    Increasing Amounts Of Admission To Rehab For Opiates: New Jersey saw a staggering 87,745 treatment admissions, underscoring the pressing need for intervention and support., Opiates, heroin in particular (an illegal opiate) accounted for nearly 38%. (NJ.GOV)

Opioid Relapse Rates

Recovery from opiate addiction is often marked by challenges, and understanding relapse rates is essential for both treatment providers and individuals seeking to overcome addiction.

  • Short-term Relapse Rates: In the short term, shortly after completing a treatment program or detox, relapse rates for opiate addiction can be relatively high. The intense cravings, withdrawal symptoms, and psychological triggers can make it challenging to maintain abstinence, leading to a significant number of individuals returning to drug use shortly after attempting to quit.
  • Long-term Relapse Rates: Over the long term, relapse rates tend to decrease as individuals gain more stability in their recovery. With the support of ongoing therapy, counseling, and community resources, many people are able to develop coping mechanisms, address underlying issues, and build a strong foundation for sustained recovery.
  • However, it’s important to recognize that opiate addiction is a chronic condition, and the risk of relapse always exists, even after years of sobriety.
  • If you have been addicted to opiates in the past and have recently relapsed, you are in the highest potential period for overdose and may need professional treatment.

Opioid User Mortality Rates

The mortality rates associated with opiate addiction are a stark reminder of the severity of this public health crisis, with overdose being a significant contributor to the loss of lives.

  • Overdose Statistics: Opiate overdoses are a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Opioids, including prescription painkillers, heroin, and synthetic opioids like fentanyl, are responsible for a substantial portion of drug-related overdose fatalities. Overdose statistics underscore the urgency of addressing the opioid epidemic, with countries experiencing varying rates of overdose deaths.
  • Contributing Factors to Overdose Deaths: Several factors contribute to the high mortality rates related to opiate addiction:
    • Potency of Substances: The increasing availability of potent synthetic opioids like fentanyl has contributed to a surge in overdose deaths. These substances are often mixed with other drugs, making it difficult for users to gauge the potency, leading to accidental overdoses.
    • Tolerance and Relapse: After periods of reduced drug use during treatment or recovery, individuals may mistakenly believe they can handle the same dose as before, leading to overdose due to decreased tolerance.
    • Polydrug Use: Combining opiates with other substances, such as alcohol or benzodiazepines, significantly increases the risk of overdose.
    • Unpredictable Sources: Illicit drugs like heroin may be adulterated or contaminated with other substances, leading to unpredictable effects and potential overdose.
    • Lack of Access to Treatment: Limited access to addiction treatment, harm reduction services, and overdose reversal medications like naloxone can contribute to higher mortality rates.
    • Stigma and Fear: The stigma associated with addiction can prevent individuals from seeking help, and fear of legal consequences may deter them from calling for emergency medical assistance during an overdose event.

What Is The Science Behind Opiate Addiction?

The science behind opiate addiction delves into the intricate interplay between brain chemistry, neural pathways, and behavior. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the development and persistence of opiate addiction is essential for devising effective prevention, treatment, and recovery strategies.

Opiates exert their effects on the brain by binding to specific receptors called opioid receptors, which are primarily located in regions involved in pain perception, reward, and mood regulation. When opiates like heroin, morphine, or prescription painkillers attach to these receptors, they trigger a cascade of biochemical reactions that result in various physiological and psychological responses.

Opiates mimic the action of natural neurotransmitters called endorphins, which are responsible for reducing pain and promoting feelings of pleasure and well-being. When opiates bind to opioid receptors, they amplify these effects, leading to a powerful sense of euphoria and pain relief. This activation of the brain’s reward system contributes to the reinforcing nature of opiates, making individuals more likely to seek out and use these substances repeatedly.

Over time, repeated opiate use can lead to changes in the brain’s reward circuitry. The brain adapts to the presence of opiates by reducing the number of receptors or altering their sensitivity. As tolerance develops, the brain becomes less responsive to natural rewards, leading individuals to prioritize obtaining and using opiates over other activities and responsibilities.

Continued opiate use can lead to physical dependence, where the body becomes reliant on the drug to function normally. If opiate use is abruptly stopped or reduced, withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, muscle aches, and anxiety can occur. These symptoms drive individuals to use opiates again to alleviate the discomfort, perpetuating the cycle of addiction.

The changes in the brain’s circuitry caused by opiate use also play a role in the cognitive and behavioral aspects of addiction. Impaired decision-making, impaired self-control, and heightened sensitivity to stress are common among individuals struggling with opiate addiction. These changes make it challenging for them to quit even when they recognize the negative consequences of their drug use.

What Is The concept of dependency?

The concept of dependency with the use of opiates refers to the physiological and psychological reliance that develops as a result of consistent and prolonged opiate use. This dependency occurs due to the brain’s adaptive changes in response to the presence of opiates, leading to both short-term and long-term effects.

Short-Term Effects of Opiate Dependency:

  • Tolerance: In the short term, regular use of opiates can lead to tolerance, where the body becomes accustomed to the drug’s presence. This means that over time, the same dose of opiates produces reduced effects, prompting individuals to increase their dosage to achieve the desired effects.
  • Withdrawal: As dependency develops, individuals experience withdrawal symptoms when the effects of opiates wear off or when they attempt to cut down or quit. Withdrawal symptoms can include muscle aches, restlessness, insomnia, anxiety, and flu-like symptoms. The discomfort of withdrawal often compels individuals to continue using opiates to avoid these unpleasant experiences.

Long-Term Effects of Opiate Dependency:

  • Physical Dependence: Prolonged opiate use can lead to physical dependence, where the body requires the presence of opiates to function normally. The body’s adaptation to opiates can result in significant discomfort and distress if the drug is suddenly stopped, driving individuals to continue using to prevent withdrawal.
  • Psychological Dependence: Opiate dependency also involves psychological aspects. Individuals become psychologically reliant on opiates to cope with stress, anxiety, and pain, or to experience feelings of euphoria. The anticipation of these effects can lead to cravings, which further reinforce the cycle of addiction.
  • Neglect of Responsibilities: As opiate dependency deepens, individuals may prioritize obtaining and using the drug over their responsibilities, relationships, and activities that were once important to them. This neglect can lead to strained relationships, loss of employment, and a decline in overall quality of life.
  • Diminished Control: Opiate dependency can erode an individual’s ability to control their drug use. Despite recognizing the negative consequences, many find it difficult to cut down or quit, driven by the overpowering urge to satisfy their physical and psychological needs.
  • Escalation of Use: Over time, individuals with opiate dependency may escalate their use to dangerous levels as they chase the initial euphoric effects that become increasingly difficult to achieve. This increases the risk of overdose, which can be fatal.

Breaking the cycle of opiate dependency often requires comprehensive treatment that addresses both the physical and psychological aspects of addiction.

What Are The Signs of Opiate Addiction?

Below are signs and symptoms that can aid in recognizing opiate addiction for early intervention and effective treatment.

Physical Signs

  • Constricted pupils
  • Drowsiness or nodding off
  • Slurred speech
  • Shallow breathing
  • Poor coordination
  • Needle marks or track marks
  • Flushed or pale complexion
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Itchy skin
  • Weight loss
  • Neglect of personal hygiene and appearance
  • Changes in sleep patterns
  • Excessive sweating
  • Constipation
  • Reduced pain sensitivity.

Behavioral Signs

  • Social withdrawal and isolation
  • Neglect of responsibilities and obligations
  • Changes in relationships and social circles
  • Increased secrecy and lying
  • Financial difficulties or unusual borrowing of money
  • Legal troubles related to drug use
  • Decline in work or school performance
  • Loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities
  • Risky behaviors to obtain opiates
  • Inability to cut down or quit despite wanting to
  • Spending a significant amount of time seeking or using opiates
  • Disregard for personal safety and well-being
  • Engaging in doctor shopping to obtain multiple prescriptions
  • Rapid mood swings and irritability
  • Continued use despite negative consequences.

Emotional Signs

  • Mood swings
  • Irritability
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Emotional numbness
  • Agitation
  • Apathy
  • Euphoria
  • Intense cravings
  • Paranoia
  • Emotional instability
  • Difficulty experiencing pleasure without opiates
  • Mood disturbances when not using opiates
  • Impaired judgment and decision-making
  • Heightened sensitivity to stress.

Symptoms of Opiate Addiction

The symptoms of opiate addiction encompass a range of physical, behavioral, and emotional indicators that collectively reflect the profound impact of this complex and challenging condition.

Early Symptoms

  • Increasing tolerance
  • Euphoria
  • Escalation of dosage
  • Frequent mood swings
  • Social withdrawal
  • Changes in sleep patterns
  • Neglect of responsibilities
  • Lying or secretive behavior
  • Seeking prescriptions from multiple doctors
  • Preoccupation with obtaining and using opiates
  • Neglecting personal appearance and hygiene.

Advanced Symptoms

  • Respiratory issues
  • Cognitive decline
  • Organ failure
  • Severe physical dependence
  • Intense and frequent cravings
  • Inability to control drug use
  • Isolation from loved ones
  • Legal issues related to drug use
  • Decline in overall health and well-being
  • Neglect of personal and professional responsibilities
  • Financial difficulties
  • Dangerous behaviors to acquire drugs
  • Development of withdrawal symptoms between doses.

What Are The Opiate Withdrawal Symptoms Like?

Withdrawal symptoms from opiate addiction can be intense and uncomfortable, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches, restlessness, anxiety, depression, insomnia, and strong drug cravings. These symptoms typically begin within hours after the last dose and peak within a few days, making the early stages of recovery challenging.

Attempting to go through opiate withdrawal without proper medical supervision can be hazardous. The severity of symptoms can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other medical complications. Moreover, the intense discomfort and emotional distress of withdrawal increase the risk of relapse, as individuals might turn to opiates to alleviate their suffering.

Medical detoxification, often the first step in overcoming opiate addiction, is supervised by healthcare professionals who provide medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and ensure the safety and comfort of the individual. Medications like methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone may be administered to ease cravings and minimize withdrawal effects. Medical detox not only helps individuals cope with the physical aspects of withdrawal but also provides a structured environment for emotional support and counseling.

What Is The History Of Opiates?

The historical use of opiates dates back thousands of years to ancient civilizations such as the Sumerians, Egyptians, and Greeks. These cultures recognized the pain-relieving properties of opium poppy plants and utilized them for various medicinal and recreational purposes. Opium was initially consumed in its raw form by either ingesting the plant material or brewing it into teas and tinctures.

During the 19th century, the isolation of specific alkaloids from opium, such as morphine and codeine, marked a significant advancement in medicine. Morphine, named after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams, was widely used as a painkiller during the American Civil War and later gained popularity in the medical field.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the invention of the hypodermic needle led to the development of injectable forms of opiates. This administration method allowed for more precise dosing and rapid onset of effects, making opiates even more potent and potentially addictive.

Over time, the synthesis of various synthetic opioids, like heroin, was introduced in attempts to find safer and more effective pain relief options. Heroin, initially marketed as a non-addictive substitute for morphine, was later recognized for its high potential for abuse and addiction.

Forms of opiates have evolved to include raw opium, morphine, codeine, and various synthetic opioids, each with differing potencies and effects. 

The prevalence of opiate addiction has reached alarming proportions, casting a shadow over societies worldwide. As the misuse of opiates continues to rise, understanding the extent of this crisis and its far-reaching impact has become an imperative concern for public health and policy efforts.

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What Are The Treatment Options For Opiate Addiction?

Treatment options for opiate addiction encompass a range of approaches aimed at addressing the physical, psychological, and social complexities of this challenging condition, offering individuals pathways to recovery and improved quality of life.

Inpatient Treatment

Inpatient treatment, also known as residential treatment, is a comprehensive approach to addressing opiate addiction that involves individuals residing at a specialized facility during the course of their treatment. This intensive form of treatment offers a structured and supportive environment where individuals can focus entirely on their recovery journey without the distractions and triggers of the outside world.

  • What It Involves: Inpatient treatment typically includes the following components:
    • Medical Detoxification: Inpatient programs often begin with a medically supervised detox phase, where individuals are safely weaned off opiates while managing withdrawal symptoms under the care of medical professionals.
    • Therapy and Counseling: Inpatient programs provide a range of therapy and counseling services, including individual therapy, group therapy, and family therapy. These sessions address the psychological aspects of addiction, underlying issues, and coping strategies.
    • Structured Schedule: Inpatient programs offer a structured daily schedule that includes therapeutic activities, educational sessions, physical exercise, and holistic therapies aimed at promoting overall well-being.
    • Peer Support: Being in a residential setting allows individuals to connect with peers who are also on the path to recovery. Peer support can provide a sense of camaraderie and understanding that can be invaluable during treatment.
    • Holistic Approaches: Many inpatient programs incorporate holistic therapies such as yoga, meditation, art therapy, and mindfulness practices to address the mind-body connection and promote relaxation.
  • Success Rates: The success rates of inpatient treatment for opiate addiction can vary based on factors such as the individual’s commitment to the program, the quality of the treatment facility, and the presence of co-occurring mental health disorders. Generally, inpatient treatment offers a higher level of support and structure, increasing the chances of successful recovery compared to less intensive outpatient options. However, it’s important to note that addiction is a complex condition, and relapse remains a possibility even after completing inpatient treatment.

Inpatient treatment provides a focused and immersive approach to overcoming opiate addiction, offering individuals a safe space to learn new skills, address underlying issues, and build a strong foundation for long-term recovery.

Outpatient Treatment

Outpatient treatment is a flexible approach to addressing opiate addiction that allows individuals to receive treatment while living at home and continuing with their daily responsibilities. It is suitable for those who do not require 24-hour medical supervision or for individuals who have completed inpatient treatment and are transitioning back into their regular lives.

  • What It Involves: Outpatient treatment typically involves the following components:
    • Counseling and Therapy: Outpatient programs offer individual therapy, group therapy, and counseling sessions to address the psychological aspects of addiction, teach coping strategies, and provide support.
    • Medical Monitoring: While not as intensive as inpatient treatment, outpatient programs may include medical check-ins to monitor progress and ensure safety during the recovery process.
    • Flexibility: Outpatient treatment provides flexibility, allowing individuals to maintain their daily routines, such as work or school commitments while attending treatment sessions during designated times.
    • Education: Educational sessions provide information about addiction, relapse prevention, and healthy lifestyle choices to support long-term recovery.
    • Peer Support: Group therapy sessions in outpatient programs provide opportunities for individuals to connect with peers who are also working toward recovery, fostering a sense of community.
  • Success Rates: The success rates of outpatient treatment for opiate addiction can vary based on several factors, including the individual’s level of motivation, the severity of the addiction, the support system at home, and the quality of the outpatient program. While outpatient treatment offers flexibility and allows individuals to apply learned skills directly to their daily lives, it may also present challenges, such as exposure to triggers and a less controlled environment.

Outpatient treatment can be effective for individuals with a strong commitment to recovery, a stable living situation, and a support network in place. It is often used as a step-down option for individuals who have completed inpatient treatment or as a primary treatment approach for those with less severe addiction. The success of outpatient treatment often depends on the individual’s active participation, willingness to engage in therapy and dedication to implementing recovery strategies in their daily life.

What Are The Harm Reduction Strategies

Harm reduction strategies aim to minimize the negative consequences of drug use while recognizing that complete abstinence may not be immediately achievable for everyone. These approaches focus on promoting the health and safety of individuals who use drugs, reducing the risks associated with drug use, and providing support for individuals to make healthier choices.

  • Needle Exchange Programs: Needle exchange programs are initiatives that provide individuals who use injectable drugs, including opiates, with access to sterile needles and syringes. These programs aim to prevent the spread of bloodborne infections such as HIV and hepatitis C by reducing the sharing of needles, which can contribute to the transmission of these diseases.
    Needle exchange programs also often offer other services, such as education on safe injection practices, disposal of used needles, and referrals to healthcare and addiction treatment services. By providing clean equipment, these programs help protect the health of individuals who continue to use drugs and the wider community.
  • Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT): Medication-assisted treatment involves using prescription medications to help individuals manage cravings and withdrawal symptoms associated with opiate addiction. These medications, such as methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone, are prescribed by healthcare providers and can be used in combination with counseling and behavioral therapy.
    MAT helps stabilize individuals, reduce the risk of overdose, and improve their overall well-being. It is often considered a harm reduction approach because it acknowledges that for some individuals, abstaining from all drug use immediately might not be feasible. MAT supports a person’s journey toward recovery by reducing the negative health impacts of drug use and allowing them to gradually work on their addiction issues.

Harm reduction strategies recognize the reality of drug use and prioritize the well-being and safety of individuals, even if they are not yet ready or able to stop using drugs completely. These strategies provide valuable support, reduce health risks, and create pathways for individuals to engage with healthcare and treatment services.


Belzak L, Halverson J. The opioid crisis in Canada: a national perspective. Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can. 2018 Jun;38(6):224-233. doi: 10.24095/hpcdp.38.6.02. PMID: 29911818; PMCID: PMC6034966.,of%20106%2C699%20deaths%20in%202021.,abscesses%2C%20septicaemia%20and%20nerve%20damage.,from%20opioid%20overdose%20each%20year.,opioid%20pain%20relievers%20during%20pregnancy.

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